Wheat is an annual plant of the grass family, one of the major cereal grains of the world. It has been grown for over 6000 years. It grows best in fairly dry, temperate regions without much humidity.
The plant averages 3 feet high. The leaves are long with linear venation. The stem is hollow except at the nodes. The flower heat is an inflorescence with an average of 18 spikelets, each having formed one to several flowers. The root system of the plant is fibrous and shallow.
The wheat grain or fruit is classified as caryopsis. The embryo and endosperm are surrounded by the husk or bran which is the fruit wall. Graham flour is the total grain crushed.6 Whole wheat has part of the bran removed while white flour has it all out. Patent flour has brain, embryo and aleuronic layer removed. The finest is angle food which is only about 40% endosperm.
Durem wheat is hard, has red grain high is protein gluten and is used for spaghetti. More of the common soft wheat which has more starch is used for bakery goods. Spelt and Emmer wheat are hardy ancient varieties. Club and Polish wheat have limited cultivation in the United States.