Plants survive by holding on to nutrients and water in the roots. However, during the process of photosynthesis, which is when plants convert carbon dioxide into oxygen, the process that helps us to cohabitate with plants, is also when plants manufacture their ammunition to survive, this process occurs inside the leaves. With that being said, plants need to get their vital fluids and energy sources starting from the ground going upward through their stems leading to the upper body of the plant.
Similar to animals plants also have vascular tissues that are known as xylem. The xylem help to move fluids and minerals upward beginning from the roots to the leaves and phloem (the vascular tissue that’s function is to carry organic nutrients through the plant), which then transports sugar molecules and amino acids through out the plant. The leaves of plants contain veins, nutrients move through these leaves to find the cells through out the leaf.
Moving on to sap, which is a combination of water and minerals that transport themselves through the xylem. Carbohydrates in plants move through the phloem. There are a couple different routes of transportation through the xylem and the phloem; their main job though is to maintain all the cells within the plant nourished and hydrated. Inside of the cells of the root, there is a larger collection of minerals than there is soil surrounding the plant.
Thus creating something called root pressure. Root pressure is when water is being pushed up out of the root through the xylem and while that’s happening more water and minerals are being pulled into the root from the soil at the same time. All of this is occurring simultaneously. This entire process results in guttation. Guttation is the formation of tiny droplets on the ends of leaves or grass early in the morning. The reason that the droplets can be seen in the morning is because of something called transpiration.
Transpiration is the loss of water from leaves. Transpiration doesn’t occur at night, so because of this the pressure builds until the morning. However those droplets are not just water, they’re actually sap. And those sap droplets are proof that water and minerals are pulled upward from the soil and then transported throughout the whole plant. Guttation may work well for some plants, but the rule of gravity works against the upward movement through larger plants, so more active processes are involved.