Soybean as an alternative of cow milk
Rakhi Sharma, H.S. Sisodiya* and Awadhesh Kishore**
Institute for Development of Technology for Rural Advancement, Mathura-281004 (INDIA)
Central Institute for Research on Goats (CIRG), Makhdoom, P.O. Farah-281122 Mathura INDIA
**Sarvoday Mahavidyalaya, Chaumuhan-281406, Mathura (INDIA)
Because of high pressure of population density, per capita milk availability is shorter. Soymilk, milky white fluid obtained from soybean by soaking, grinding and filtering, may be an alternate of cow milk and is suitable for manufacturing of various indigenous milk sweets and confectionary. Auto-oxidations, lipoxygenase catalysis and various cooking processes are used to remove flavour from soymilk.
Cow milk, Glycine max, Milk, Off flavour, Soybean, Soymilk.
Why the soymilk alternates cow milk:
India is now recognized as biggest milk produce in the globe. Because of high pressure of population density, per capita milk availability is shorter that that is recommended for a healthy person. Soy milk has a potential to be an alternate of cow milk. Soymilk is prepared from a legume named soybean.
Soybean botanically known as Glycine max is a member of Leguminaceae family. It is one of the most richest source of protein, therefore is an important protein source for millions of people in India for over five thousand years (Mathur, 2004).
What the soymilk is:
Soymilk is one of the most popular preparations of soybean. Soymilk is commonly used as chilled drink. Lo et al., (1968) defined soymilk as milky white fluid obtained from soybean by soaking, grinding and filtering. The nutritive value of soymilk is almost identical to that of cow milk. Deshpande et al., (2008) reported some major and minor components like protein, fat, carbohydrate, calcium, iron, sodium, carotene, vitamin-E and riboflavin in soymilk. Wang et al., (2001) used soymilk to manufacture various products like paneer, yogurt, cheese, tea and coffee whiteners, shrikhand, rasogolla and various indigenous milk sweets and confectionary. The quality of these products was very much nearer to those made of cow milk.
How off flavour be removed:
The factor limiting its dietary use in food products is the associated flavour (Deshpande et al., 2008). The various flavoring agents carbonyl compounds, phenolic acids, volatile fatty acids, amines, alcohol, phosphatidylcholine, linoleic and linolenic acids have been isolated from soybean. Auto-oxidations and lipoxygenase catalysis are two processes which can give rise to off flavour (Mattick and Hand, 1969). Salunkhe and Kadam, (1989) also reported various processing techniques which can reduce off flavor from dishes prepared from soybean.
Mathur, S., 2004. Soybean the wonder legume. Beverage Food World, 31, 1, 61-62.
Lo, W.Y., K.H. Steinkraus and D.B. Hand, 1968. Soaking soybeans before extraction and it affects chemical composition and yield of soymilk. Food Technol., 22: 1188-1190.
Wang B., Y. Xiong and C. Wang, 2001. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of flavoured soymilk during refrigeration storage. J. Food Qual., 24: 513-526.
Deshpande, S., P. Bargale and K. Jha, 2008. Suitability of soymilk for development of shrikhand. J. Food Sci. Technol., 45(3): 284-286.
Mattick, L.R. and D.B. Hand, 1969. Identification of volatile compound in soybean that contribute to the raw bean flavour. J. Agric. Food Chem., 17: 15-17.
Salunkhe, D.K. and S.S. Kadam, 1989. Hand Book of World Food Legume, Vol. III, CRC Publication, Press, Inc.Baca Raton, Florida, pp: 1-31.