Bronchial asthma. Bronchial asthma is an attack of breathlessness accompanied by wheezing. Wheezing means breathing with difficulty, usually with a whistling sound. This is caused by the contraction of the muscles of the muscles of the bronchi, making it narrower and difficult for air to pass. The most common type of bronchial asthma is allergic asthma. It occurs in people who are allergic to pollen, house mites, fungal spores, animal dander, dust and others. The symptoms of asthma are difficulty in breathing, dry cough, wheezing and a feeling of tightness in the chest. Asthma has no cure. Drugs in the form of tablets or capsules, or inhalers are given to dilate the bronchi, there by relieving the symptoms.
Pneumonia. Pneumonia is an infection of the lungs caused by viruses or bacteria. The infection may affect one lobe of a lung or the bronchi and bronchioles. The symptoms of pneumonia are fever, chills, shortness of breath and cough which produces yellow-green sputum and sometimes blood. If a person has mild pneumonia, he or she may be treated at home. In severe cases, hospitalization is needed. Treatment may include antibiotics, oxygen therapy and artificial ventilation.
Tuberculosis. Tuberculosis (TB) is an infection of the lungs caused by the tuberculosis bacteria. This disease can easily pass from person to person. Coughs and sneezes of infected persons can contaminate the air. When other persons breathe in contaminated air, the bacteria enter the lungs. The symptoms of tuberculosis are coughing, fever, sweating, and shortness of breath, poor appetite and loss of weight. A chest X-ray or test on the sputum and skin can be used to diagnose if a person had TB. There are specific antibiotics that can completely cure tuberculosis, provided the full course of treatment is taken. Rest, fresh air and proper food can also help a patient recover from this disease.
Emphysema. Emphysema is an ailment in which the alveoli in the lungs become damaged. This is caused mostly by heavy cigarette smoking and, to some degree, by long exposure to polluted air. The destruction of the alveoli makes them less elastic, so the cannot work well. The symptoms of emphysema are coughing, a light wheeze and a barrel-shaped chest. Emphysema cannot be cured. Treatment can only control the ailment to prevent further damage. Drugs that widen the bronchi are usually inhaled to reduce inflammation.
Lung cancer. Lung cancer is an uncontrolled growth of cells which affect the lung tissues. The main cause of this disease is cigarette smoking. The more cigarettes a person smokes, the more he or she is at risk of having lung cancer. Passive smokers, or people who do not smoke but inhale the tobacco smoke from smokers, are also at risk of having lung cancer. People who live in place where there is a high level of air pollution are also at risk of having this disease. The symptoms of lung cancer are coughing up blood, shortness in breath, chest pain and wheezing. Lung cancer may be discovered though an X-ray examination, CT scanning or ultrasound scans. When lung cancer is diagnosed at an early stage, it is removed by surgery. Anticancer drugs and radiation therapy may be used to destroy the cancerous cells and prevent their spread.
note: originally posted at Triond.com under the same author.